Gauls, in fact, are a branch of the Celts, inhabiting the areas of central and western Europe (especially today's Belgium, France and Switzerland, but also northern Italy) in the period from about the 5th century BC. The Roman state entered into intense military interaction with the Gauls / Celts for the first time in the 4th century BC, when the Battle of the Allia River, north of Rome, took place, where Roman troops suffered a devastating defeat and the Eternal City itself was occupied by invaders . The Romans later fought with Gauls / Celts also in the 3rd century BC, when they conquered northern Italy and during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). On the other hand, the conquest of Gaul was made by Julius Caesar in the years 58-51 BC. In progress, the so-called of the Gallic Wars, Caesar suffered one significant defeat at the hands of the Gauls - at Gergowia (52 BC), where he lost to the Gallic commander Vercingetorix. However, he avenged this defeat with a vengeance at Alesia in the same year. In the period of the 1st century BC. Gauls had very good quality weapons, especially swords. The basic armament of a foot fighter was a sword, spear and shield, less often a helmet or armor. Although the Gauls were characterized by not little courage and often physical prowess, as emphasized by Roman sources, they were significantly inferior to the Romans in terms of military organization and tactics.